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Transitive and Intransitive Pairs of Verbs. Absence of Reflective Verbs. Causative Verbs.

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Compound Verbs. Sum If Zuru, jiru. Verbs Liable to be Mistaken for Each Other. Paradigm of Iru, Ireru, and Iru , — If — Verbs used as Other Parts of Speech. Reduplication of Present Tense Page — Absence of True Adverbs. Adjective Forms in ku used Adverbially. Nouns used as Adverbs. Phonetic Decay. Gerunds used as Adverbs. List of Adverbs. Yes and No. Adverbial Phrases. Onomatopoetic Adverbs. Interjections H Ne ,—M Bad Language.

Baby Language. Women's Language. Court Language. Conjunc- tions Page — IT — Honorifics only Partially Replace the Pronouns of other Languages. O and Go. Sama applied to Things or Acts. Honorifics used Objectively. O Saki, — IF Meaningless Use of Honorifics.

Honorific Periphrases for Verbs. Special Honorific and Humble Verbs. Honorific Imperatives. Please and Thank You. Written Language Forms.


Scantiness of Self- Depreciatory Forms. Women's Names. Page — Correlation of Sentences. Subjects of Sentences. Miscellaneous Examples. General Subjectlessness of Sentences. Order of the Direct and Indirect Objects of the Verb. Ellipsis, Final Verb often Omitted. Syntax of Postpositions. Inversion Rare.

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Negatives Mutually Destructive. Quotation generally Direct. Absence of Personification.

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U XI IT IF — A Newspaper Article, entitled " Why? Extract from a Sermon ,, — A Word about Poetry , — H Introductory Remarks. He is persuaded that no language was ever learnt solely from a grammar, — least of all a language like Japanese, whose structure and idioms are so alien from all that we are accustomed to in Europe. is expired

The student is therefore recommended only to glance through the Theoretical Part at first, in order to obtain a general idea of the territory he has to conquer. He can pick up by the way such of the examples as strike him, committing them to memory and seeking opportunities for using them to his servants and his native teacher. After all, as Japanese consists chiefly of long sentences, one cannot too early decide to face them.

A little prac- tice will rob them of much of their terror. It should be read through carefully, a little at a time, after a diligent study of the Practical Part and a committal of a few pages of the latter to memory shall have caused the student to make some way in the mastery of the language. The necessity for memorising cannot be too strongly insisted upon. It is the sole means of escape from the pernicious habit of thinking in English, translating every sentence literally from a whispered English original, and therefore beginning and ending by speaking English Japanese instead of Japanese Japanese.

It is not only that the words and idioms of Japanese differ from our English words and idioms, but that the same set of cir- cumstances does not always draw from Japanese speakers remarks similar to those which it would draw from European speakers. Japanese thoughts do not run in quite the same channels as ours. To take a very simple instance. In each of these languages the same kindly hope would be expressed.

In Japanese it is differ- ent. The phrase would run thus : Otottsan wa, do de gozaimasu? Go shimpu wa, ikaga de irasshaimasu? This he can do only by dint of much learning by heart. The trouble thus taken will be of infinite advantage to him, even if his ultimate aim be the indoctrination of the Japanese with foreign ideas.

It will put him in sympathy with his hearers. It is true that, of late, English idioms have begun to penetrate into the Japanese language. But it is chiefly into the language of the lecture-hall and the committee-room. The style of familiar every-day speech is as yet scarcely affected by this new influence. It is still doubtful under what family of languages Japan- ese should be classed. There is no relationship between it and Aino, the speech of the hairy aborigines whom the Japanese conquerors have gradually pushed eastwards and northwards.

In structure, though not to any ap- preciable extent in vocabulary, Japanese closely resembles Korean ; and both it and Korean may possibly be related to Mongol and to Manchu, and therefore claim to be included in the Altaic group. Be this as it may, Japan- ese is what is generally termed an agglutinative language, that is to say that it builds up its words and grammatical forms by means of suffixes loosely soldered to the root or stem.

Similarly in several of the words recently adopted from English, such as mishin, "a sewing- machine;" Gotto, "the Christian God;" bukkuy " a European book. The earliest Japanese literature that has come down to us.

The general structure of the language at that time was nearly the same as it is now. But the changes of detail have been so nume- rous, that a page of eighth century Japanese is unintel- ligible to a modern native of Tokyo without special study. One of the chief factors in the alteration of the language has been the gradual infiltration of Chinese words and phrases, which naturally accompanied the borrowing of Buddhism, Confucianism, and the various arts and sciences of China.

Chinese established itself, so to speak, as the Latin and Greek of Japan. It retains this position even at the present day, supplying names for almost all the new implements, sciences and ideas, which are being introduced from Europe and America. In this manner, one very curious and quite unexpected result pf the Europeanisation of Japan has been the flood- ing of the language with Chinese terms at a rate never known before.

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Thus we have : jo'ki-sefif lit. The Japanese do not pronounce Chinese in a manner that would be intelligible to any Chinaman. They have two standards of pronunciation, both of which are corruptions of the Chinese pronunciation of over a thousand years ago. Usage decrees that the same word shall be pronounced according to the Go-on in some con- texts, and according to the Kan-on in others.

Thus the myo of dai-tnyo, " a feudal noble " lit. The practical student will do best to learn words by rote, without troubling himself as to whether each term, if Chinese, be in the Go-on or in the Kan-on, U 6. The effect of the steady influx of Chinese words during more than a millennium has been to discredit the native Japanese equivalents even when they exist. A foreigner who wishes to be considered an elegant speaker should, therefore, gradually accustom himself to employ Chinese words very freely, except when addressing uneducated persons. Wa-sei, "Japanese made," to Nihon-deki.

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Some persons indeed, both Japanese and foreign, regret the fashionable preference for Chinese words. But the fashion exists, and to follow it is considered a mark of refinement ; neither is it possible, even were it desirable, for an outsider to set up a standard of his own, different from that acknowledged by the people themselves. On the other hand, much confusion is caused by the fact that numbers of Chinese words are pronounced alike.